Surgical oncology is a broad speciality that involves surgical procedures for cancers. Surgical oncologists or laparoscopic cancer surgeon provide holistic approach to cancers which include medical oncology and radiation oncology. Surgical oncologist is trained to approach the treatment based on overall knowledge of cancer like screening, diagnosis, various modalities of treatment like cancer surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Latest advancement in surgical intervention for cancer, the techniques used has become less invasive which result in less pain, less physical disfigurement, quicker recovery and functional retainability. Some techniques used by cancer surgeon are:
- Laparoscopic Surgery : This Laproscopic cancer surgery involves the use of thin long tubes which are inserted into the body through small incisions. Laparoscopic procedures minimize blood loss, pain, scarring and hospital stay.
- Thoracoscopic Surgery : This type of surgery is similar to the laparoscopic surgery only it is performed in the chest to visual and remove cancers in the chest cavity.
- Robotic Surgery : The doctor sits at a console to control the robotic arms which have special instruments into precise incisions and removal of cancer. The advantages of this surgery are principally the same as laparoscopic and thoracoscopic surgery in that there is reduced blood loss, smaller scars, faster healing and shorter hospital stay.
- Mohs Microscopic Surgery : Used for treating skin cancers(Melanoma).
- Radiofrequency Ablation : cancerous cells are destroyed with the use of high energy radio waves which are focused through a needle.
- Laser Surgery : This technique allows for precision in surgical incisions with the use of a highly focused and powerful beam of light energy
- Cryosurgery : Liquid nitrogen is used in a spray to freeze and kill the abnormal cells
- Electro Surgery : Electrical currents at high frequencies are used to destroy the cancerous cells.
Surgical procedures for common cancers:
General Cancer surgeries :
- Thyroidectomy : Removal of the thyroid gland
- Neck dissection : this surgery is necessary to remove affected lymph nodes.
- Laparoscopic Nephrectomy or video-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy
- Endoscopic stomach resection : Removal of whole or part of the stomach with the help of an endoscope
- Transanal endoscopic microsurgery : surgery for rectal cancer
- VATS (Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery)
- Laryngectomy : removal of the larynx or the voice box
- Minimally invasive esophagectomy : removal of the oesophagus
- Trans-oral Robotic Surgery (TORS) : used increasingly to remove cancers of the throat
- Whipple's procedure : complex operation to remove the head of the pancreas, the first part of the small intestine (duodenum), the gallbladder and the bile duct
Surgery for women
- Breast-conserving surgery : surgery which will only remove cancer aiming to retain as much normal breast tissue as possible.
- Mastectomy : removal of the entire breast
- Cryosurgery : surgery done by freezing cancer to remove cancer. Typically performed in cervical cancers
- Laser Surgery : High energy laser surgery will burn the cancerous tissue for removal
- Conization : removal of a portion of the cervix
- Laparoscopic hysterectomy : removal of the uterus through the abdomen
- Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy : removal of the uterus through the vagina
- Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery
Surgery for men
- Surgery for Penis
- Moh's Microscopic surgery
- Penile Consceving surgery
- Partial Penectomy
- Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: removal of the prostate
- Robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: removal of the prostate.
With the use of laparoscopic, robotic and other minimally invasive surgical procedures, there is minimal scarring, blood loss, hospital stay and faster healing.
Authored By : Dr. Shiva Kumar Uppala